carcinoma: Cancer that has extended outside of the breast lining.
Ductal carcinoma in
situ: This occurs when cancerous cells are discovered in the
lining of the intraductal carcinoma.
cancer: Breast cancer in which the breasts appear red, enlarged,
This cancer occurs when a tumor develops on the surface of the nipple.
Signs of Male Breast Cancer
Common symptoms of male breast cancer include:
Hard, painless lump
Change in size of
Nipple discharge or
Scaly skin on nipple
Redness on breast or
Males who experience one or more of these symptoms should seek medical
attention. Although male breast cancer is rare, delaying treatment will make it
difficult to cure this illness. The procedure to diagnose male breast cancer is
a biopsy. During a biopsy, a thin needle is inserted into the lump. Tissue
samples are removed from the lump for examination. In some cases, doctors will
remove the entire lump. The sample is observed by a pathologist. Once male
breast cancer is confirmed, the next step is determining the stage of cancer.
This information is essential for choosing the most effective treatment.
Stages of Breast Cancer
Male and female breast cancer consists of five stages. Doctors determine
stages based on the size of tumors, and whether cancer is present in other
areas of the body. The stages of breast cancer include:
Stage 0: Cancerous cells develop; tumors have not formed.
Stage 1: The tumor is smaller than 2 centimeters, and
cancer has not spread to surrounding tissues and organs.
Stage 2: The tumor is between 2 and 5 centimeters, and cancer
has spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage 3: Advanced stage in which cancer has spread to
surrounding tissues such as skin, chest wall, and rib cage.
Stage 4: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body and
may affect the brain, bones, liver, or lungs.